5 Mother Sauces
|Béchamel sauce or White sauce, is usually made by whisking scalded milk|
gradually into a white flour-butter roux (equal part clarified butter and flour).
The thickness of the final sauce depends on the proportions of milk and flour.
Béchamel sauce is a key ingredient in many lasagna recipes
|Espagnole or Brown Sauce is a very dark brown roux, to which veal stock or |
water is added, along with browned bones, pieces of beef, vegetables, and various seasonings. This blend is allowed to slowly reduce while being frequently skimmed.
Tomato paste or pureed tomatoes are added towards the end of the process,
and the sauce is further reduced. Espagnole has a strong taste and is rarely used
directly on food. As a mother sauce, however, it serves as the starting point for
many derivative sauces including Demi-glace
|Velouté sauce is a light stock (one in which the bones used have not been|
previously roasted), such as chicken, veal or fish stock, that is thickened with
a blond roux. Thus the ingredients of a velouté are equal parts by mass butter
and flour to form the roux, a light chicken, veal, or fish stock, and salt and
pepper for seasoning. Commonly the sauce produced will be referred to
by the type of stock used e.g. chicken velouté. Sauce velouté is often
served on poultry or seafood dishes.
|Hollandaise sauce is an emulsion of butter and lemon juice or vinegar |
using egg yolks as the emulsifying agent (to bind the sauce), usually seasoned
with salt and a little black pepper or cayenne pepper. Hollandaise sauce is
well known as a key ingredient in Eggs Benedict. A normal ratio of ingredients
is 1 egg yolk:1 teaspoon lemon juice:4-6 Tbs. butter. A common derivative of
Hollandaise Sauce is Sauce Béarnaise which is produced by replacing the
lemon reduction in hollandaise with a strained reduction of vinegar, shallots,
fresh chervil, fresh tarragon and crushed peppercorns.
|Tomato sauce is any of a very large number of sauces made primarily out|
of tomatoes, usually to be served as part of a dish (rather than as a condiment)
Tomatoes have a rich flavor, low liquid content, very soft flesh which breaks down
easily, and the right composition to thicken up into a sauce when they are cooked
(without the need of thickeners like roux). All of these qualities make them ideal
for simple and appealing sauces. Marinara Sauce is an American-Italian term
for a simple tomato sauce with herbs—mostly parsley and basil—but, contrary
to its name (which is Italian for coastal, seafaring) without anchovies, fish or
seafood. In other countries marinara refers to a seafood and tomato sauce.